My research strives to expand atomic-level understanding of heterogeneous catalysts. Heterogeneous catalysts are drivers of the chemical industry, pollutant cleanup and fuel-cell technologies, and key to artificial photosynthesis; yet the chemistry behind them is poorly understood. Currently, heterogeneous catalysts are developed through empirical means, typically without much mechanistic insight into the atomic structures at the heart of the catalytic reaction. This approach is reminiscent of drug development in the pre-structural biochemistry era. The research proposed here represents a significant step toward development of the structural chemistry of complex catalysts.