27 - Dietary fatty acid composition modulates metabolic profiles of mice and gut microbiota populations
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
The interaction between the human host and gut microbiota is important to maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Different classes of fatty acids, including saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) are proposed to modulate the relationship between host metabolism and gut microbiota differently. It is hypothesized that imbalances between the host and the gut microbiota may contribute to the development and progression of metabolic diseases commonly occurring in obese individuals, including type II diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. In this study, the impact of diets enriched in protective, health-promoting PUFA or HUFA are compared to diets enriched SFA in order to evaluate changes in metabolic profiles and the interactions between host and gut microbiota. C57Bl/6 mice were placed on one of four synthetic diets, for duration of eight weeks, which differ in the type of fat so that the major components were: [A] SFA, [B] PUFA, [C] HUFA, or [D] a SFA/HUFA mixture. The diets were matched for all other dietary components and contained 7% fat. These studies demonstrate that the types of fatty acid in the diet largely influence physiology, metabolic factors, and the gut microbiota population dynamics.