Susmita Bose, PhD
3D printing in Bone tissue engineering
Washington State University
Herman and Brita Lindholm Endowed Chair Professor
School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
Affiliate Professor, Department of Chemistry
There are an estimated one million bone grafting procedures performed annually in the U.S. and a few million worldwide to repair fractures, craniomaxillofacial defects, bone defects, tumors, as well as hip and knee replacements. Increase in the number of procedures is strongly tied to the increase in musculoskeletal disorder, aging population segment and sports related injuries. World dental implant and bone graft market could top $6 billion by 2014, and hip and knee implants market to reach $21 Billion by 2016. Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic being compositionally similar to the inorganic part of bone, show significant promise towards drug delivery and bone graft applications. Additive manufacturing or 3D printing technology has tremendous potential to be used in patient specific defect repair applications. This technology enables us to make bone graft or bone implant with controlled geometry / architecture and chemistry depending on clinical need. We have used CaP scaffolds, fabricated using 3-D printing technology, for bone tissue engineering. Dopant chemistry in CaP plays a vital role in controlling their resorption or degradation kinetics as scaffolds, mechanical strength, and biological properties of resorbable CaPs. 3D interconnected channels in CaP scaffolds provide pathways for micronutrients, improved cell-material interactions, and increased surface area allows improved mechanical interlocking between scaffolds and surrounding bone. In vivo studies show improved osteogenesis and angiogenesis with these 3D printed scaffolds. These systems with controlled strength degradation and drug release, show promise for use in orthopedic and bone tissue engineering applications. Our study on doped CaP coated metal implants shows enhanced coating interfacial strength, excellent in vitro osteoblast and osteoclast cell material interactions and improved osseointegration in vivo. The presentation will include recent scientific and technological advances towards developing next generation ceramics and composite bone tissue engineering scaffolds using 3D printing.